Catalonia’s unconstitutional October referendum and its subsequent unilateral declaration of independence brought the secessionist cause into the international spotlight. Fast forward to today, when several members of the Catalan government await trial in Spain and the fate of former regional President Carles Puigdemont, currently in Belgium, remains uncertain.
How did this extraordinary chain of events come about? Will the upcoming Catalan regional election lead to further conflict, or is a peaceful, negotiated outcome still possible? And what are the implications for Spain, for the European Union, and for secessionist movements around the world?